路加福音3 Luke

章:1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

3:1 凯撒提庇留在位第十五年,本丢彼拉多作犹太巡抚,希律作加利利分封的王,他兄弟腓力作以土利亚和特拉可尼地方分封的王,吕撒聂作亚比利尼分封的王,

Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,

3:2 亚那和该亚法作大祭司,那时,撒迦利亚的儿子约翰在旷野里,神的话临到他。

Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.

3:3 他就来到约旦河一带地方,宣讲悔改的洗礼,使罪得赦。

And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins;

3:4 正如先知以赛亚书上所记的话,说,在旷野有人声喊着说,豫备主的道,修直他的路。

As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.

3:5 一切山洼都要填满,大小山冈都要削平。弯弯曲曲的地方要改为正直,高高低低的道路要改为平坦。

Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth;

3:6 凡是血气的,都要见神的救恩。

And all flesh shall see the salvation of God.

3:7 约翰对那出来要受他洗的众人说,毒蛇的种类,谁指示你们逃避将来的忿怒呢。

Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

3:8 你们要结出果子来,与悔改的心向称,不要自己心里说,有亚伯拉罕为我们的祖宗。我告诉你们,神能从这些石头中,给亚伯拉罕兴起子孙来。

Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and begin not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, That God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.

3:9 现在斧子已经放在树根上,凡不结好果子的树,就砍下来丢在火里。

And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.

3:10 众人问他说,这样我们当作什么呢。

And the people asked him, saying, What shall we do then?

3:11 约翰回答说,有两件衣裳的,就分给那没有的。有食物的也当这样行。

He answereth and saith unto them, He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do likewise.

3:12 又有税吏来受洗,问他说,夫子,我们当作什么呢。

Then came also publicans to be baptized, and said unto him, Master, what shall we do?

3:13 约翰说,除了例定的数目,不要多取。

And he said unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed you.

3:14 又有兵丁问他说,我们当作什么呢。约翰说,不要以强暴待人,也不要讹诈人,自己有钱粮就当知足。

And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages.

3:15 百姓指望基督来的时候,人都心猜疑,或者约翰是基督。

And as the people were in expectation, and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ, or not;

3:16 约翰说,我是用水给你们施洗,但有一位能力比我更大的要来,我就是给他解鞋带也不配。他要用圣灵与火给你们施洗。

John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire:

3:17 他手里拿着簸箕,要扬净他的场,把麦子收在仓里,把糠用不灭的火烧尽了。

Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable.

3:18 约翰又用许多别的话劝百姓,向他们传福音。

And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people.

3:19 只是分封的王希律,因他兄弟之妻希罗底的缘故,并因他所行的一切恶事,受了约翰的责备,

But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother Philip’s wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done,

3:20 又另外添了一件,就是把约翰收在监里。

Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison.

3:21 众百姓都受了洗,耶稣也受了洗,正祷告的时候,天就开了,

Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened,

3:22 圣灵降临在他身上,形状妨佛鸽子。又有声音从天上来,说,你是我的爱子,我喜悦你。

And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.

3:23 耶稣开头传道,年纪约有三十岁,依人看来,他是约瑟的儿子,约瑟是希里的儿子,

And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli,

3:24 希里是玛塔的儿子,玛塔是利未的儿子,利未是麦基的儿子,麦基是雅拿的儿子,雅拿是约瑟的儿子。

Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Janna, which was the son of Joseph,

3:25 约瑟是玛他提亚的儿子,玛他提亚是亚摩斯的儿子,亚摩斯是拿鸿的儿子,拿鸿是以斯利的儿子,以斯利是拿该的儿子,

Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos, which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli, which was the son of Nagge,

3:26 拿该是玛押的儿子,玛押是玛他提亚的儿子,玛他提亚是西美的儿子,西美是约瑟的儿子,约瑟是犹大的儿子,犹大是约亚拿的儿子,

Which was the son of Maath, which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Semei, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Juda,

3:27 约亚拿是利撒的儿子,利撒是所罗巴伯的儿子,所罗巴伯是撒拉铁的儿子,撒拉铁是尼利的儿子,尼利是麦基的儿子,

Which was the son of Joanna, which was the son of Rhesa, which was the son of Zorobabel, which was the son of Salathiel, which was the son of Neri,

3:28 麦基是亚底的儿子,亚底是哥桑的儿子,哥桑是以摩当的儿子,以摩当是珥的儿子,珥是约细的儿子,

Which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Addi, which was the son of Cosam, which was the son of Elmodam, which was the son of Er,

3:29 约细是以利以谢的儿子,以利以谢是约令的儿子,约令是玛塔的儿子,玛塔是利未的儿子,

Which was the son of Jose, which was the son of Eliezer, which was the son of Jorim, which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi,

3:30 利未是西缅的儿子,西缅是犹大的儿子,犹大是约瑟的儿子,约瑟是约南的儿子,约南是以利亚敬的儿子,

Which was the son of Simeon, which was the son of Juda, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Jonan, which was the son of Eliakim,

3:31 以利亚敬是米利亚的儿子,米利亚是买南的儿子,买南是玛达他的儿子,玛达他是拿单的儿子,拿单是大卫的儿子,

Which was the son of Melea, which was the son of Menan, which was the son of Mattatha, which was the son of Nathan, which was the son of David,

3:32 大卫是耶西的儿子,耶西是俄备得的儿子,俄备得是波阿斯的儿子,波阿斯是撒门的儿子,撒门是拿顺的儿子,

Which was the son of Jesse, which was the son of Obed, which was the son of Booz, which was the son of Salmon, which was the son of Naasson,

3:33 拿顺是亚米拿达的儿子,亚米拿达是亚兰的儿子,亚兰是希斯仑的儿子,希斯仑是法勒斯的儿子,法勒斯是犹大的儿子,

Which was the son of Aminadab, which was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esrom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Juda,

3:34 犹大是雅各的儿子,雅各是以撒的儿子,以撒是亚伯拉罕的儿子,亚伯拉罕是他拉的儿子,他拉是拿鹤的儿子,

Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abraham, which was the son of Thara, which was the son of Nachor,

3:35 拿鹤是西鹿的儿子,西鹿是拉吴的儿子,拉吴是法勒的儿子,法勒是希伯的儿子,希伯是沙拉的儿子,

Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala,

3:36 沙拉是该南的儿子,该南是亚法撒的儿子,亚法撒是闪的儿子,闪是挪亚的儿子,挪亚是拉麦的儿子,

Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem, which was the son of Noe, which was the son of Lamech,

3:37 拉麦是玛土撒拉的儿子,玛土撒拉是以诺的儿子,以诺是雅列的儿子,雅列是玛勒列的儿子,玛勒列是该南的儿子,该南是以挪士的儿子,

Which was the son of Mathusala, which was the son of Enoch, which was the son of Jared, which was the son of Maleleel, which was the son of Cainan,

3:38 以挪士是塞特的儿子,塞特是亚当的儿子,亚当是神的儿子。

Which was the son of Enos, which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God.


3:1 公元14至17年,提比留做罗马皇帝,彼拉多是罗马政府指派管理犹太省的巡抚(省长),希律(即安提帕)和腓力是同父异母的兄弟,他们的父亲是残暴的大希律,二十多年前已死去。安提帕、腓力、彼拉多和吕撒聂显然有同等的权利去管理其分封之地,效忠罗马,并有责任维持其管辖地之和平。

3:2 按照犹太人的律法,大祭司只有一位,他必须是亚伦的后裔,受神委任,并要终生成为大祭司。然而,当时宗教系统已经败坏了,罗马政府自己委任宗教领袖,以便能更有效地控制犹太人。表面看来,罗马有关方面已废黜了犹太人所委任的亚那,而换上了他的女婿该亚法作大祭司。然而,亚那仍然保持大祭司的职衔(参徒4:6)和权力,因为犹太人相信大祭司的职分是终生的,仍继续称呼亚那为大祭司。

3:2 腓力、希律和该亚法是巴勒斯坦地权力最大的领袖,但他们的光芒却被一位来自犹太旷野的先知所掩盖了。神拣选了这位孤独的施洗约翰(参约1章人物介绍),通过他来说话,他比当时任何一位领袖都伟大。我们经常以自己的文化标准:权力、财富、外表来衡量别人,因而忽略了那些真正伟大、蒙神拣选的人。人伟大与否,不在乎他拥有甚么,而是在乎他对神的信心有多大。让我们像约翰一样,将自己完全交托给神,让他透过我们来工作。

3:3 悔改包括离开罪恶和归向神两方面,我们要得到赦免,这两方面缺一不可,不可以只说相信耶稣,却仍然照自己的喜好行事(参3:7-8);我们也不可只有良好的道德生活,而忽略与神建立个人的关系,否则就不能使罪得赦免。神若向你指出生活中有甚么罪,就要决心除去这些罪,单单信靠神,只让他引导你。

3:4-5 当时,皇帝出游之前,会有使者通知那些即将受访的人,要为皇帝预备道路。同样,约翰告诉他的听众,要预备自己的生命,迎接主临到他们那里。为了迎接耶稣,我们必须转向他,听他说的话,顺服遵行他的指引。

3:6 路加福音是写给非犹太人的。作者用以赛亚书说明救恩是赐给全人类的(参赛40:3-5;52:10)。施洗约翰也呼召所有人去预备见耶稣,其中也包括你和我。不论你的地位有多高、权势有多大,都要预备自己去见耶稣。不要觉得自己是局外人,也不要以为这跟自己没关系,而因此裹足不前,每一个要跟从耶稣的人都不会被拒于神国的门外。

3:7 是甚么促使你相信耶稣呢?是对将来的恐惧,还是对完美世界的期望呢?有些人希望接受约翰的洗,好逃避永恒的刑罚;然而,他们没有转向神寻求救恩。约翰严斥这些人,他知道神重视人的改变过于礼仪。你的信心是基于对新生命的渴求,还是如注射疫苗或是购买保险一样,为了预防可能发生的灾难?

3:8 约翰说,即使是亚伯拉罕的子孙,还不能满足神的要求。他的听众实在感到震惊。宗教领袖倚赖他们的家族血统多于他们对神的信心,对他们来说,宗教是世袭的。然而,与神的关系不是由父母传给子女的,每一个人都要靠自己去寻找这种关系。不要倚赖别的来获得救恩,你要相信耶稣,并每天操练信心。

3:8-9 认罪与生命的改变是不可分割的,没有行为的信心是死的(参雅2:14-26)。约翰严厉地指责那些受人景仰,却不打算有真正改变的宗教领袖。他们只想别人认为自己是宗教权威,而不希望自己的心思意念有甚么改变;这样的生命是毫无价值的。悔改必须带有行动,否则便不是真正的悔改。跟随耶稣不单是说正确的话,也是要按著他的吩咐去做。今天就行动,跟随耶稣!

3:11-14 约翰的信息要求人至少有三种回应:(1)与有需要的人分享你所有的;(2)不论你做甚么工作,都要尽力做好,公平待人;(3)对自己所赚取的要知足。约翰没有时间对那些生活不羁或自私的人说安慰的话,因为他是要呼召人悔改,过正直的生活。在这三方面,你可以怎样改变自己呢?

3:12 税吏因其敲诈行为而臭名远播,罗马政府采用承包制去向人民徵收税款,税吏往往巧立名目,诈取金钱,中饱私囊,赚取可观的收入。犹太人除非冒著激怒罗马政府的危险来反抗,否则,只好按著税吏所要求的交税。这些税官奸诈、贪婪、冷酷,为了钱随时出卖自己的同胞,所以犹太人都憎恨他们。然而,约翰说,神也会接纳他们这种人;神怜悯所有悔改的人,同样赐给他们力量去改变生活。

3:12-14 约翰的信息出乎意料地在穷人、罪人、甚至那些被人厌恶的军人中间产生效果,他们沉痛地知道了自己的需要。我们常常混淆了体面的事和正确的生活,其实这是两件事。体面的事如果叫我们看不见自己对神的需要,便会阻碍我们过正确的生活。假如要你从两者中选其一,你是愿意保留你的名誉,还是要保持你的人格呢?

3:14 这些罗马军人奉命到犹太省份维持治安,他们大多欺压穷人,又利用权力敲诈人民。约翰呼召他们悔改,改变他们的做事方式。

3:15 对以色列人来说,已超过四百年没有先知了,他们普遍认为,弥赛亚来临时,先知会再度出现(参珥2:28-29;玛3:1;4:5)。约翰出现时,人们兴奋起来,他显然是一个伟大的先知,人们相信期待已久的弥赛亚即将到来。有些人甚至以为约翰就是弥赛亚,因他说话像昔日的先知,告诉人们一定要转离罪恶,以免被罚,并要回转归向神,经历他的慈爱与赞许。这信息不受时代和地域的限制,但约翰言辞迫切,为要预备人们迎接弥赛亚。

3:16 约翰用水施洗象徵洗去罪恶,与他所传的悔改和生命改变的信息互相配合。而耶稣用火施洗,就更包括遵行神旨意所需的能力。圣灵的洗在五旬节那一天应验了(参徒2章),当时有舌头似的火焰显现降临在信徒身上,使他们有能力用多种的语言去宣讲耶稣基督复活的信息。火的洗礼也象徵圣灵的工作,要把神的审判降在拒绝悔改的人身上。

3:17 约翰把拒绝神的人比作糠,即麦子无用的外壳;他警告他们神的审判随时临到。相反,他把愿意悔改,又改变自己生活的人比作麦子。簸箕用来扬起麦粒,好使麦子与外壳分开。拒绝给神使用的人,因为在神的计划中毫无价值,所以会被丢弃;然而,那些悔改相信的人,因为开始了事奉神的新生命,所以在神眼中是宝贵的。

3:19-20 路加提前记叙这件事,继续介绍施洗约翰的事迹。(有关事件的时间顺序,请参四福音合参。)

3:19-20 这一个希律王是希律安提帕(参可6章人物介绍);希罗底是希律的侄女,也是他兄弟的妻子。希罗底狡猾地把施洗约翰置于死地(参太14:1-12)。希律家族是个狡诈和嗜杀的家族。他本人更是一位暴虐专制的罗马官员,有权将人下狱、处决。所以,要指出他的罪行是极之危险的。然而,约翰就是这样做了。希律似乎有最后决定权,然而事实并非如此,在最后审判时,遭殃的是希律而不是约翰。

3:21 路加强调耶稣人性的一面。耶稣生于卑微的家庭,除了牧羊人和博士外,他的出生没有向任何人宣告。这次洗礼是他开始传道的初次公开宣告,他没有到耶路撒冷,与那些宗教领袖在一起;相反,他来到约旦河,与认罪悔改的人在一处。他十二岁时曾到过圣殿,他明白自己的使命(2:49);十八年后,藉著洗礼,他开始实践这使命。他祷告时,神向他说话,认同他的决定。就这样,神藉著耶稣基督介入了人类的历史。

3:21-22 洗礼是认罪悔改的表示,耶稣为何还要受洗呢?有几个可能的解释:(1)他与我们的人性和罪性认同,洗礼是他实践使命的一个步骤;(2)认可洗礼的仪式,给我们做榜样,让我们学效他;(3)宣布他公开传道的开始;(4)耶稣为民族的罪而受洗。圣灵像鸽子那样出现,表示耶稣是神救赎计划的中心。他是完美的人,无需为悔罪而受洗,但无论如何,他是为了我们的缘故受了洗。

3:21-22 圣经中有几处地方同时提到三一神的三个位格──圣父、圣子、圣灵,这是其中一处。按教会传统的说法,独一的神有三个位格,但本质却是合一的,彼此是同等的、永远并存的。没有任何解释可以把这复杂的关系和当中的力量描绘出来,自然界中也没有可完全相类比的事物,因为根本没有其他东西有三位一体的关系。

3:23 耶稣是世界的救主,竟在一个小镇的木匠铺里当木匠,一直到三十岁!照理,他不会甘心一直留在拿撒勒,但他耐心地等候天父对他的生命和工作所定的时间。按照律法规定,祭司到三十岁才开始工作(参民4:3)。约瑟三十岁时开始服事埃及王(参创41:46);大卫三十岁时开始统治犹大(参撒下5:4),所以,在犹太文化中,三十岁是开始重要工作的适当时间。我们要学效耶稣,在得到圣灵指示前,拒绝抢先行动。你是否正在等候,正在思考下一步要怎样行?不要抢先行动,要相信神所定的时间。

3:23 希里可能是约瑟的岳父,若真的如此,这就是马利亚的家谱,路加可能是亲自从马利亚那里得到这家谱的。由于路加福音重视妇女,他把马利亚的家谱记下来也是一件很自然的事。

3:23-38 马太福音的家谱(参太1:1-17)由亚伯拉罕开始,显明他与所有犹太人有密切关联;路加福音的家谱,回溯至亚当,显明他是全人类的救主。

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