申命记19 Deuteronomy

章:1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

19:1 耶和华你神将列国之民剪除的时候,耶和华你神也将他们的地赐给你,你接着住他们的城邑并他们的房屋,

When the LORD thy God hath cut off the nations, whose land the LORD thy God giveth thee, and thou succeedest them, and dwellest in their cities, and in their houses;

19:2 就要在耶和华你神所赐你为业的地上分定三座城。

Thou shalt separate three cities for thee in the midst of thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it.

19:3 要将耶和华你神使你承受为业的地分为三段。又要预备道路,使误杀人的,都可以逃到那里去。

Thou shalt prepare thee a way, and divide the coasts of thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee to inherit, into three parts, that every slayer may flee thither.

19:4 误杀人的逃到那里可以存活,定例乃是这样,凡素无仇恨,无心杀了人的,

And this is the case of the slayer, which shall flee thither, that he may live: Whoso killeth his neighbour ignorantly, whom he hated not in time past;

19:5 就如人与邻舍同入树林砍伐树木,手拿斧子一砍,本想砍下树木,不料,斧头脱了把,飞落在邻舍身上,以致于死,这人逃到那些城的一座城,就可以存活,

As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbour to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slippeth from the helve, and lighteth upon his neighbour, that he die; he shall flee unto one of those cities, and live:

19:6 免得报血仇的,心中火热追赶他,因路远就追上,将他杀死。其实他不该死,因为他与被杀的素无仇恨。

Lest the avenger of the blood pursue the slayer, while his heart is hot, and overtake him, because the way is long, and slay him; whereas he was not worthy of death, inasmuch as he hated him not in time past.

19:7 所以我吩咐你说,要分定三座城。

Wherefore I command thee, saying, Thou shalt separate three cities for thee.

19:8 耶和华你神若照他向你列祖所起的誓扩张你的境界,将所应许赐你列祖的地全然给你,

And if the LORD thy God enlarge thy coast, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, and give thee all the land which he promised to give unto thy fathers;

19:9 你若谨守遵行我今日所吩咐的这一切诫命,爱耶和华你的神,常常遵行他的道,就要在这三座城之外,再添三座城,

If thou shalt keep all these commandments to do them, which I command thee this day, to love the LORD thy God, and to walk ever in his ways; then shalt thou add three cities more for thee, beside these three:

19:10 免得无辜之人的血流在耶和华你神所赐你为业的地上,流血的罪就归于你。

That innocent blood be not shed in thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and so blood be upon thee.

19:11 若有人恨他的邻舍,埋伏着起来击杀他,以致于死,便逃到这些城的一座城,

But if any man hate his neighbour, and lie in wait for him, and rise up against him, and smite him mortally that he die, and fleeth into one of these cities:

19:12 本城的长老就要打发人去,从那里带出他来,交在报血仇的手中,将他治死。

Then the elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence, and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die.

19:13 你眼不可顾惜他,却要从以色列中除掉流无辜血的罪,使你可以得福。

Thine eye shall not pity him, but thou shalt put away the guilt of innocent blood from Israel, that it may go well with thee.

19:14 在耶和华你神所赐你承受为业之地,不可挪移你邻舍的地界,那是先人所定的。

Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour’s landmark, which they of old time have set in thine inheritance, which thou shalt inherit in the land that the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it.

19:15 人无论犯什么罪,作什么恶,不可凭一个人的口作见证,总要凭两三个人的口作见证才可定案。

One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.

19:16 若有凶恶的见证人起来,见证某人作恶,

If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong;

19:17 这两个争讼的人就要站在耶和华面前,和当时的祭司,并审判官面前,

Then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before the LORD, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days;

19:18 审判官要细细地查究,若见证人果然是作假见证的,以假见证陷害弟兄,

And the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother;

19:19 你们就要待他如同他想要待的弟兄。这样,就把那恶从你们中间除掉。

Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you.

19:20 别人听见都要害怕,就不敢在你们中间再行这样的恶了。

And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you.

19:21 你眼不可顾惜,要以命偿命,以眼还眼,以牙还牙,以手还手,以脚还脚。

And thine eye shall not pity; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.

申命记19参考

通往逃城的路要畅通无阻,因为──
19:2-3 摩西吩咐以色列人,要筑好通往几座逃城的道路。如果通往逃城的道路失修而不能使用,逃城就名存实亡。有许多投奔逃城的人,真的是为著逃命,道路的保养完善与否,可能关系到人的生死存亡。古时的道路要不断地保养维修,因为路上常常污秽泥泞,尘沙堆积,甚至有很深的坑洞且容易被水冲毁。不但要设立这种公平的制度,并且要采取必要的措施,使通往逃城的路畅通,确是非常重要的。

神为甚么吩咐摩西设立逃城?
19:2-7 每个社会都要处理谋杀案。但是,社会应当怎样对待误杀人的呢?神给以色列人作了指示。在摩西的时代,报血仇是普遍又快速的事,所以神吩咐以色列人设立几座逃城。凡是声称误杀别人的人,都可以逃往其中的一座,以等候公平的审讯。如果他被断定为没有谋杀的意图,就可以住在城中享安全,不会被人寻仇报复。这是神对他的子民既公义又怜悯,二者融合的美好实例(对于逃城的详细资料,请参看对民35:6的注释)。

报血仇者是些甚么人?
19:12 “报血仇的人”是与被杀之人最近的男性亲属,是家族的保护者(参民35:19)。

以牙还牙,是说人可以报仇吗?
19:21 这一节所定的原则是给审判官使用的,并不适用于个人的报复。这种处罚犯人的态度似乎古老,但是对古时在公义与公平的审判上,的确是一种突破。那时大多数国家,都使用专制的方法来处罚罪人;这种原则却显明神关心公平与公义并确保犯人免受酷刑,不会受过于他们所当受的。根据同样的公平原则,作假见证之人,也会因诬告受到被他陷害之人可能受的刑罚。制定罪有应得的处罚原则,在现今一样适用。

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