利未记17 Leviticus

章: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

17:1 耶和华对摩西说,

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

17:2 你晓谕亚伦和他儿子并以色列众人说,耶和华所吩咐的乃是这样,

Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them; This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, saying,

17:3 凡以色列家中的人宰公牛,或是绵羊羔,或是山羊,不拘宰于营内营外,

What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp,

17:4 若未曾牵到会幕门口,耶和华的帐幕前献给耶和华为供物,流血的罪必归到那人身上。他流了血,要从民中剪除。

And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people:

17:5 这是为要使以色列人把他们在田野里所献的祭带到会幕门口,耶和华面前,交给祭司,献与耶和华为平安祭。

To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they offer in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the LORD, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and offer them for peace offerings unto the LORD.

17:6 祭司要把血洒在会幕门口,耶和华的坛上,把脂油焚烧,献给耶和华为馨香的祭。

And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and burn the fat for a sweet savour unto the LORD.

17:7 他们不可再献祭给他们行邪淫所随从的鬼魔(原文是公山羊),这要作他们世世代代永远的定例。

And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations.

17:8 你要晓谕他们说,凡以色列家中的人,或是寄居在他们中间的外人,献燔祭或是平安祭,

And thou shalt say unto them, Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers which sojourn among you, that offereth a burnt offering or sacrifice,

17:9 若不带到会幕门口献给耶和华,那人必从民中剪除。

And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer it unto the LORD; even that man shall be cut off from among his people.

17:10 凡以色列家中的人,或是寄居在他们中间的外人,若吃什么血,我必向那吃血的人变脸,把他从民中剪除。

And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, that eateth any manner of blood; I will even set my face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people.

17:11 因为活物的生命是在血中。我把这血赐给你们,可以在坛上为你们的生命赎罪,因血里有生命,所以能赎罪。

For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.

17:12 因此,我对以色列人说,你们都不可吃血,寄居在你们中间的外人也不可吃血。

Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood.

17:13 凡以色列人,或是寄居在他们中间的外人,若打猎得了可吃的禽兽,必放出它的血来,用土掩盖。

And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, which hunteth and catcheth any beast or fowl that may be eaten; he shall even pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust.

17:14 论到一切活物的生命,就在血中。所以我对以色列人说,无论什么活物的血,你们都不可吃,因为一切活物的血就是他的生命。凡吃了血的,必被剪除。

For it is the life of all flesh; the blood of it is for the life thereof: therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.

17:15 凡吃自死的,或是被野兽撕裂的,无论是本地人,是寄居的,必不洁净到晚上,都要洗衣服,用水洗身,到了晚上才为洁净。

And every soul that eateth that which died of itself, or that which was torn with beasts, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger, he shall both wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even: then shall he be clean.

17:16 但他若不洗衣服,也不洗身,就必担当他的罪孽。

But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh; then he shall bear his iniquity.

利未记17参考

圣洁是高不可攀的标准吗?
17章 人有时称第17至26章为圣洁的法典,因为这几章详细描述如何过圣洁的生活,多于讲解其意义。它的中心经文是“你们要圣洁,因为我耶和华你们的神是圣洁的。”(19:2)

神为甚么不许以色列人在会幕以外献祭呢?
17:3-9 这是因为他已经定出献祭的时间与地点,并且每种祭具都有象徵意义,只有这些献祭是得到神准许的。如果百姓可随处献祭的话,就很可能随意增减神的条例,以迎合自己的生活方式,正如许多异教的祭司所做的一样。神的命令能使百姓抗拒试探,不至随从异教风俗。后来以色列人转而拜偶像,就是因为“各人任意而行”(士17:6)。

这山羊,是外族的神?神禁止他们敬拜山羊,原因你也明了……
17:7 山羊神(也被称为鬼魔)是古代人敬拜和献祭的对象,拜山羊神在埃及流行甚广。以色列人刚刚从那里逃出来,神不许他的子民在旷野献这种祭,进入应许之地后,也照样不许。

流血才能赎罪,是野蛮的行径吗?
17:11-14 血怎么能赎罪呢?“因为血里有生命,所以能赎罪”,一方面血代表罪人的生命,受到罪的感染,走向死亡;另一方面,这血也代表牲畜的无罪生命,为犯罪而献祭之人作出牺牲。牲畜的死(它流出的血可作凭证)代表了死刑已经执行,所以神也就赦免了罪人。只要人以纯正的态度献祭,流出祭牲的血,就可以使罪得赦。神是依据献祭之人的信心赦免他的罪的。

神为甚么不许人吃血呢?
17:14 这条禁令可一直追溯到挪亚的时代(参创9:4)。神禁止人吃血,原因如下:(1)叫百姓必须与周围各族有显著的分别,因为吃血是异教的习俗。异教徒误认为吃血可以吸取动物之精华,如力气、速度等等,所以常常吃它们的血。神的子民要倚靠他,不是靠吃牲畜的血得力量。(2)保持献祭的象徵性。血象徵牲畜的生命,是代替罪人而流出的。如果吃血,便改变了献祭赎罪的象徵意义,也消灭了献祭的凭证。(3)保护神的子民免受疾病传染,因为许多严重的疾病是由血传染而来的。犹太人对这一条禁令非常认真,难怪人听到耶稣说,人必须喝他的血的时候,就厌弃他(参约6:53-56)。耶稣是神,又是必须为罪献上的末后之祭,所以他叫信徒与他完全一致,合而为一。他既要我们让他的生命进入心中,又要介入我们的生活。

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